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“能耗双控”下的太阳能光伏发电的机会
返回列表 来源: 发布日期: 2021.11.26 浏览次数:

“能耗双控”下的太阳能光伏发电的机会,限电限产、有序用电是双碳目标下“能耗双控”政策下的重大举措,也是企业不得不面临的现实课题;随后一系列政策更使得绿电引发了前所未有的关注。在屋顶安装光伏,不仅能缓解企业用电压力,保障企业生产;还可以带来不错的经济效益和环境效益,减少碳排放,为国家双碳目标作出贡献。当“能耗双控”遇上光伏,又会有怎样的变化和机遇呢?
一、能耗双控政策解读
8月,国家发展改革委办公厅印发《2021年上半年各地区能耗双控目标完成情况晴雨表》,显示有9个省/区(青海、宁夏、广西、广东、福建、新疆、云南、陕西、江苏)的能耗强度不降反升,对这些区域,今年将暂停国家规划布局的重大项目以外的“两高“项目节能审查,并督促各地采取有力措施,确保完成全年能耗双控目标,尤其着重于能耗降低目标。
1.1 文件:
9月,国家发展改革委关于印发《完善能源消费强度和总量双控制度方案》的通知发改环资〔2021〕1310号
1.2 定义:能耗双控主要指能源消费总量和强度。
1.3 意义:持续提高能源利用效率有利于降低经济社会发展对能源和碳排放增长的依赖。能合理控制能源消费总量有利于推动碳达峰碳中和目标实现。
1.4 目标:到2035年,能源资源优化配置、全面节约制度更加成熟和定型,有力支撑碳排放达峰后稳中有降目标实现。
1.5 机遇:对于作为绿色、清洁、无碳的光伏,有着显著的政策及其他优势,光伏行业成为高附加值行业。
二、双控下光伏的优势
2.1 光伏及时补位,保障企业有序生产今年1至6月份,浙江乐清电网主线路拉闸限电已达到425次,损失电量455万千瓦时。当前,乐清全市31个乡镇有10个乡镇进入黑色、橙色供用电预警。2021年10月,乐清市《关于调整C级有序用电方案的通知》里,就已经标注企业屋顶光伏发电不在(全部停止生产用电)控制范围内。同年10月,苏州工业园的企业收到通知,对获评绿色工厂、零碳工厂的企业予以有序用电豁免。
各地政府能耗双控指标出现预警的时候,难免会加大双控力度,而光伏起到了“及时补位”的作用,光伏从某种意义上保障了企业的用电和生产 ,在保障地方工业企业电力供应。分布式光伏具备供需结合,就地消纳的能力,电站白天工作时间与企业用电高峰匹配,能有效减小电网压力,缓解供电紧张。
2.2 燃煤电价市场化,助推光伏收益
10月12日国家发改委发布《关于进一步深化燃煤发电上网电价市场化改革的通知》, 燃煤发电上网电量,不再实行原有政府定价制度,全部进入电力市场。10月25日,江苏发改通知中明确说明取消江苏省现行一般工商业及其它用电、大工业用电的目录销售电价。
以江苏10kV大工业用电为例,取消后高峰(8:00-12:00、17:00-21:00)电价较目录电价小幅下降,平时段价格变化不大,低谷时段电价较目标电价大幅上涨,峰谷差价不大;以10kV大工业目录电价为例,自发自用屋顶分布式光伏以及对应大工业用户电网代理电费加权电价进行测算,不考虑电价打折,加权电价为0.7904元/kWh,取消目录电价后,交易购电价格为最高限价时对应大工业用户电网代理费加权电价为0.8296元/kwh,较原先上涨5%(考虑到煤炭价格上涨,电力供应短缺问题,交易价格短期内是高于基准价的),故抵消这部分的光伏项目在先行电价上涨的情况下展现出更强的经济性。
2.3配置储能时机来临
2021年11月19日,吴江区人民政府发布如下补贴政策:全区新建及改扩建工业厂房项目,全部建设屋顶光伏发电设施。现有工业企业屋顶面积10000平方米以上,或年综合能耗1000吨标煤(当量值)以上,或年用电量200万千瓦时以上,在满足荷载条件的前提下,应安装屋顶光伏发电设施。鼓励装机容量2兆瓦以上的光伏项目按照不低于装机容量8%的比例配建储能系统,支持发展集中式储能项目。具体补贴如下:
2.4 碳交易
2.4.1 归属通过能源合同管理,企业获得屋顶租金或电价折扣,投资方获得电价收益,但其中碳交易的价值并没有体现,未来企业碳排放碳配额指标不够,如果光伏的碳属性不属于自己,还需要额外购买CCER或者绿电。
2.4.2收益碳交易市在全国范围内场启动后,新能源运营企业可通过出售CCER(国家核证自愿减排量)而在原有的运营收益基础之上获得额外的收益。其次,新能源运营企业的效益通过碳交易得到提升后,有利于刺激新能源装备行业的发展。按照全国统一碳交易市场42.21元/吨的收盘价来计算 ,相当于每年能多获取1.66万元的收益。
三、双控下的光伏注意点
3.1 光伏安全备受关注
能耗双控下电气安全尤为重要,尤其是企业迫于大形势下要安装光伏,但是企业对于故障监测预警能力、设备防火防爆、系统及时切出能力要求更高。
安全的信号或图像采集:譬如温度采集,譬如测温电缆、无人机红外热像监测、在一些关键节点添加一些测温PT等;譬如在某安全性能要求较高的屋顶要求布置一些测温电缆,测温电缆沿光伏组件背面敷设,每个测温点与光伏板MC4接头外套紧密连接,每根测温电缆有上百个测点。这些测点的温度数据会实时传输到监测中心,监测中心服务器对数据进行储存、分析,对异常数据推送到相应负责人处。
设备本身安全特性:逆变器不光监测设备自身的故障,还可以监测一些来自系统的故障,譬如AFCI直流拉弧、RCD漏电流、ISO对地阻抗方面的问题。
系统的分断能力:譬如漏电保护开关、RSD关断功能等。
3.2 屋顶条件不够(荷载和防水)
3.2.1防水对于工业企业来讲,光伏发电获得的收益远远没有自身正常生产运营重要,因此工业企业更注重光伏屋面的防水、节能及保温等效果,避免因渗漏而影响正常的生产经营、承担较大的维修成本,其次才会关注光伏屋面发电能否带来收益。故安装光伏又能修复屋顶防水的工程特别受到企业青睐。
3.2.2荷载对于大多数屋顶的荷载都无法满足装光伏的要求,光伏投资商尤其是整县开发的企业,荷载加固方面所需的费用非常高并且加大了施工难度和风险。
檩条增加隅撑加固方案
办法:荷载加固单独评估费用或者采取电价少打折的方式
3.3 光伏电能质量
分布式光伏发电的接入,加大了其所在区域的负荷预测难度,改变了既有的负荷增长模式,使配电网的改造和管理变得尤为复杂。除此之外,对不平衡度、谐波、闪变等电能参数有影响并且影响继电保护的配置,一般并网光伏配置电能质量在线监测装置。
并网逆变器要遵循NB/T32004-2013《光伏发电并网逆变器技术规范》。并网点装设满足IEC61000-4-30《电磁兼容第4-30部分试验和测量技术电能质量》。
通过这些标准规范,来降低光伏发电对于电能质量的影响。
四、小结在双控的背景下,光伏起到了“及时补位”的作用,从而保障了企业的用电和生产 。
1、由于燃煤电价市场化,进一步助推了光伏收益。
2、储能成为双控下的未来3~5年一个高性价比的解决方案。
3、碳交易使得光伏在原有的运营收益基础之上获得额外的收益。
4、企业对光伏电站的安全性能提出了更高的要求。
5、对于一些屋顶安装条件不佳的用户,需要重点考虑防水及荷载。
6、对于一些电能质量要求高的企业,需要注意设计及设备选型。

The opportunity of solar photovoltaic power generation under the "double control of energy consumption", power limit and production limit, orderly use of electricity is a major measure under the "double control of energy consumption" policy under the double carbon goal, but also the practical subject that enterprises have to face;   Subsequently, a series of policies have brought unprecedented attention to green electricity.  Installing pv on the roof can not only relieve the power consumption pressure of enterprises, but also ensure the production of enterprises.   It can also bring good economic and environmental benefits, reduce carbon emissions, and contribute to the national dual carbon goals.  When "energy consumption dual control" meets photovoltaic, what changes and opportunities will there be?  

I. Interpretation of double control policy of energy consumption  

In August, the General Office of the National Development and Reform Commission issued the Barometer of Achieving dual Energy Consumption Control targets by Region in the first Half of 2021, which showed that energy intensity in nine provinces/regions (Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Shaanxi and Jiangsu) increased instead of decreasing. For these regions,   This year, we will suspend the review of energy conservation for projects with high energy consumption, high energy consumption, and high energy consumption except for major projects that are planned by the state, and urge local governments to take effective measures to ensure that the annual targets for controlling energy consumption are met, with particular emphasis on reducing energy consumption.  

1.1 file:  

In September, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) issued a circular, No. 1310, on improving the Dual Control Scheme of Energy Consumption Intensity and Total Volume  

1.2 Definition: Dual control of energy consumption mainly refers to the total amount and intensity of energy consumption.  

1.3 Significance: Continuously improving energy use efficiency is conducive to reducing the dependence of economic and social development on energy and carbon emission growth.   Reasonable control of total energy consumption is conducive to the realization of carbon peak and carbon neutrality.  

1.4 Target: By 2035, the optimal allocation of energy and resources and the comprehensive conservation system will be more mature and established, which will strongly support the realization of the goal of stable and declining carbon emissions after peaking.  

1.5 Opportunity: As a green, clean and carbon-free photovoltaic industry, it has significant policy and other advantages, and the photovoltaic industry has become a high value-added industry.  

Two, the advantages of double control photovoltaic  

From January to June this year, zhejiang Yueqing Power grid's main line has reached 425 times of switch-off and power limit, with a loss of 4.55 million KWH of electricity.   At present, yueqing city 31 towns have 10 towns into the black, orange power supply warning.  In October 2021, Yueqing City "On the adjustment of THE C-class orderly power consumption plan" in the notice, has marked the enterprise rooftop photovoltaic power generation is not (all stop production of electricity) within the control scope.   In October of the same year, enterprises in Suzhou Industrial Park received a notice to give orderly exemption of electricity consumption to enterprises awarded green and zero-carbon factories.  

When the local government energy consumption double control index appears early warning, it is inevitable to increase the double control efforts, and photovoltaic plays the role of "timely filling", photovoltaic in a sense to ensure the power consumption and production of enterprises, in the protection of local industrial enterprises in the power supply.   Distributed pv has the ability to combine supply and demand and absorb local consumption. The daytime working hours of the power station match the peak power consumption of the enterprise, which can effectively reduce the pressure of the power grid and relieve the power supply tension.  

2.2 Coal-burning electricity price marketization to boost photovoltaic income  

On October 12, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the Notice on Further Deepening the Market-oriented Reform of the On-grid Electricity price of Coal-fired Power Generation. The on-grid electricity of coal-fired power generation is no longer subject to the original government pricing system, and all of it will enter the power market.   On October 25, Jiangsu province made it clear in the notice of development and reform to cancel the current catalog price of electricity for general industry and commerce, other electricity and large industrial electricity in Jiangsu Province.  

Taking Jiangsu 10kV large industrial power consumption as an example, after the cancellation, the peak price (8:00-12:00, 17:00-21:00) decreases slightly compared with the catalog price, and the price in the normal period changes little, while the price in the trough period increases significantly compared with the target price, and the peak-valley price difference is not big.   Taking 10kV large industrial catalog electricity price as an example, the weighted electricity price of spontaneous and self-use rooftop distributed pv and corresponding large industrial users' power grid agent is calculated. The weighted electricity price is 0.7904 yuan /kWh without considering price discount. After the cancellation of catalog electricity price,  Trading power purchase prices at the highest price for the big industrial users grid fee weighted electricity price is 0.8296 yuan/KWH, a rise of 5% in the original (considering coal prices, power supply shortages, market price is higher than the benchmark price in the short term), so the offset this part of the pv projects under the condition of the first electricity prices show a stronger economy.  

2.3 It is time to configure energy storage  

On November 19, 2021, the People's Government of Wujiang District issued the following subsidy policies: all the new and renovated industrial plant projects in the district will be built with rooftop PHOTOVOLTAIC power generation facilities.   Existing industrial enterprises with roof area of more than 10,000 square meters, or annual comprehensive energy consumption of more than 1,000 tons of standard coal (when the value), or annual electricity consumption of more than 2 million KWH, under the premise of meeting load conditions, rooftop PHOTOVOLTAIC power generation facilities should be installed.  Photovoltaic projects with an installed capacity of more than 2 MW are encouraged to install energy storage systems at a ratio of no less than 8% of their installed capacity, and centralized energy storage projects are supported.   Specific subsidies are as follows:  

2.4 carbon trading  

2.4.1 Attribution Through energy contract management, enterprises can get roof rent or electricity price discount, and investors can get electricity price income, but the value of carbon trading is not reflected. In the future, carbon emission quota of enterprises is not enough. If the carbon attribute of photovoltaic does not belong to them, they need to buy additional CCER or green electricity.  

2.4.2 Income After the carbon trading market is launched nationwide, new energy operators can obtain additional income on the basis of original operating income by selling CCER (voluntary emission reduction certified by the state).   Secondly, the efficiency of new energy operation enterprises is improved through carbon trading, which is conducive to stimulate the development of new energy equipment industry.  Based on the closing price of 42.21 yuan per ton in the national unified carbon trading market, it is equivalent to an additional profit of 16,600 yuan per year.  

Three, the double control of photovoltaic points  

3.1 Photovoltaic safety has attracted much attention  

Electrical safety under double control of energy consumption is particularly important, especially when enterprises are forced to install photovoltaic under the big situation, but enterprises have higher requirements for fault monitoring and early warning ability, equipment fire and explosion prevention, and system timely cutting ability.  

Safe signal or image acquisition: such as temperature acquisition, such as temperature cable, uav infrared thermal imaging monitoring, adding some temperature measurement PT in some key nodes;   For example, in a roof with high safety performance requirements, some temperature cables are arranged. The temperature cables are laid along the back of the PHOTOVOLTAIC module. Each temperature measuring point is closely connected with the MC4 connector coat of the photovoltaic panel, and each temperature measuring cable has hundreds of points.   The temperature data of these measuring points will be transmitted to the monitoring center in real time. The server of the monitoring center will store and analyze the data and push abnormal data to the corresponding responsible person.  

The safety features of the equipment itself: the inverter can not only monitor the fault of the equipment itself, but also monitor some faults from the system, such as AFCI DC arc pulling, RCD leakage current, ISO impedance to the ground problems.  

System breaking ability: such as leakage protection switch, RSD off function, etc.  

3.2 Inadequate roof conditions (load and waterproofing)  

3.2.1 waterproof for industrial enterprises, photovoltaic power generation benefits far less important than its normal production operation, so the industrial enterprises pay more attention to pv roof waterproof, energy saving and thermal insulation effect, avoid the leakage and affect the normal production and operation, to undertake large maintenance cost, the second will can focus on photovoltaic roof power generation benefit.   Therefore, the installation of photovoltaic and repair of waterproof projects are particularly favored by enterprises.  

3.2.2 Load The load of most roofs cannot meet the requirements of photovoltaic installation. Photovoltaic investors, especially enterprises developed in the whole county, need very high cost of load reinforcement and increase the difficulty and risk of construction.  

Purlin added corner brace reinforcement scheme  

Method: load reinforcement is evaluated separately or electricity price is discounted  

3.3 Photovoltaic power quality  

The access of distributed photovoltaic power generation increases the difficulty of load prediction in its region, changes the existing load growth mode, and makes the transformation and management of distribution network more complicated.   In addition, it has an impact on power parameters such as unbalance, harmonics and flicker and affects the configuration of relay protection. Generally, grid-connected pv is equipped with an online monitoring device for power quality.  

Grid-connected inverters should follow NB/T32004-2013 "Technical Specification for Grid-connected Photovoltaic Inverters".  The connection point is installed in accordance with IEC61000-4-30 "Electromagnetic compatibility part 4-30 Test and Measurement Technology Power quality".  

Through these standard specifications, to reduce the impact of photovoltaic power generation on power quality.  

In the context of dual control, photovoltaic plays the role of "timely filling", so as to ensure the power consumption and production of enterprises.  

1. Due to the marketization of coal-fired electricity price, photovoltaic income has been further boosted.  

2. Energy storage becomes a cost-effective solution for the next 3-5 years under dual control.  

3. Carbon trading enables pv to obtain additional income on the basis of the original operating income.  

4. Enterprises have put forward higher requirements for the safety performance of photovoltaic power stations.  

5, for some users with poor roof installation conditions, need to focus on waterproof and load.  

6. For some enterprises with high power quality requirements, attention should be paid to design and equipment selection.  





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